Stores are divided into multiple categories of stores which sell a selected set of goods or services. Psychological pricing which refers to a range of tactics, designed to have a positive psychological impact. For other uses, see Shopping disambiguation. Specific streets and districts became devoted to retail, including the Strand and Piccadilly in London.
Old used items are often distributed through surplus stores. Various types of retail stores that specialize in the selling of goods related to a theme include bookstores , boutiques , candy shops , liquor stores , gift shops , hardware stores , hobby stores , pet stores , pharmacies , sex shops and supermarkets.
Other stores such as big-box stores , hypermarkets , convenience stores , department stores, general stores , dollar stores sell a wider variety of products not horizontally related to each other. Home mail delivery systems and modern technology such as television, telephones, and the Internet , in combination with electronic commerce , allow consumers to shop from home.
There are three main types of home shopping: Online shopping has completely redefined the way people make their buying decisions; the Internet provides access to a lot of information about a particular product, which can be looked at, evaluated, and comparison-priced at any given time. Online shopping allows the buyer to save the time and expense, which would have been spent traveling to the store or mall.
Convenience stores are common in North America, and are often called "bodegas" in Spanish-speaking communities or " dépanneurs " in French-speaking ones. Sometimes peddlers and ice cream trucks pass through neighborhoods offering goods and services. Also, garage sales are a common form of second hand resale. Neighbourhood shopping areas and retailers give value to a community by providing various social and community services like a library , and a social place to meet.
Neighbourhood retailing differs from other types of retailers such as destination retailers because of the difference in offered products and services, location and popularity. Destination retailers include stores such as; Gift shops , Antique shops , Pet groomers, Engravers , Tattoo parlour , Bicycle shops , Herbal dispensary clinics, Art galleries , Office Supplies and framers.
The neighbourhood retailers sell essential goods and services to the residential area they are located in. There can be many groups of neighbourhood retailers in different areas of a region or city, but destination retailers are often part of shopping malls where the numbers of consumers is higher than that of a neighbourhood retail area.
The destination retailers are becoming more prevalent as they can provide a community with more than the essentials, they offer an experience, and a wider scope of goods and services. The party plan is a method of marketing products by hosting a social event, using the event to display and demonstrate the product or products to those gathered, and then to take orders for the products before the gathering ends. Shopping frenzies are periods of time where a burst of spending occurs, typically near holidays in the United States, with Christmas shopping being the biggest shopping spending season, starting as early as October and continuing until after Christmas.
Some religions regard such spending seasons as being against their faith and dismiss the practice. Many contest the over-commercialization and the response by stores that downplay the shopping season often cited in the War on Christmas. The National Retail Federation NRF also highlights the importance of back-to-school shopping for retailers which comes second behind holiday shopping, when buyers often buy clothing and school supplies for their children.
Seasonal shopping consists of buying the appropriate clothing for the particular season. In winter people bundle up in warm layers and coats to keep warm, while in summer people wear less clothing to stay cooler in the heat. Seasonal shopping now revolves a lot around holiday sales and buying more for less. Stores need to get rid of all of their previous seasonal clothing to make room for the new trends of the upcoming season. Holiday shopping periods are extending their sales further and further with holidays such as Black Friday becoming a month-long event stretching promotions across November.
These days shopping doesn't stop once the mall closes, as people have more access to stores and their sales than ever before with the help of the internet and apps. Shoppers once used an average of five sources for information before making a purchase, but numbers have risen to as high as 12 sources in Historically, prices were established through a system of barter or negotiation.
The first retailer to adopt fixed prices is thought to be the retailers operating out of the Palais-Royal complex in the 18th-century. These retailers adopted a system of high price maintenance in order to cultivate images of luxury. For their upper class clientele, fixed prices spared them from hassle of bartering.
The pricing technique used by most retailers is cost-plus pricing. This involves adding a markup amount or percentage to the retailers' cost. Another common technique is manufacturers suggested list pricing. This simply involves charging the amount suggested by the manufacturer and usually printed on the product by the manufacturer.
In retail settings psychological pricing or odd-number pricing are both widely used. Psychological pricing which refers to a range of tactics, designed to have a positive psychological impact. This creates price points. In a fixed-price system, consumers may still use bargaining or haggling ; a negotiation about the price. Economists see this as determining how the transaction's total economic surplus will be divided between consumers and producers.
Neither party has a clear advantage because the threat of no sale exists, in which case the surplus would vanish for both. When shopping online , it can be more difficult to negotiate price given that you are not directly interacting with a sales person.
Window shopping is often practised by a particular segment, known as the recreation-conscious or hedonistic shopper. Showrooming , the practice of examining merchandise in a traditional retail store without purchasing it, but then shopping online to find a lower price for the same item, has become an increasingly prevalent problem for traditional retailers as a result of online competitors, so much so that some have begun to take measures to combat it.
In countries like Denmark , the Netherlands and Germany the high levels of utility cycling also includes shopping trips e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Shopping disambiguation. Pricing and Pricing strategies.
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